While education is difficult for the general population to obtain, minority groups in Burma have even fewer educational opportunities. (1998). Abstract: With the importance of education, globally, nationally, and provincially, rural teacher education is emerging an important field of study to promote a nation’s education development.This paper mainly thus focuses on the real situations of the challenges of qualified teacher education encountering in rural areas in Myanmar. Ironically, in this era of diminishing awareness of the environment and the world we live in, many educators in the West are returning slowly to the idea that education is life itself and not merely a preparation for life, and that life is education. Salient EconomicÂ, Myanmar Education Research Bureau.  Learning: The Treasure Within. In 1920, the two existing colleges – University College, Rangoon and Judson College – were amalgamated to form the University of Rangoon. He was Rector of the Institute of Education, Yangon from August 1992 till November 2001 when he retired. The trainingÂ, is conducted during weekends, and October and December school holidays.Â, 33. Rangoon:  Government Printing Press.Â, Department of Labour & UNICEF. (1995).  Myanmar: Fertility andÂ, Reproductive Health Survey. In order to find solutions to the challenges and gaps in the current education system, since July UNESCO sector analysis process is a form of strategic planning applied to theÂ, education and human resources development sector. 98-99/03/1).Yangon: Myanmar Education Research Bureau.Â, Nyi Nyi. The tangible outputs of theÂ, sector analyses were attained in a similar fashion and are very similar in format.Â,  44. (1997). 23. Historically, Burma, officially called Myanmar, has not supported and has even been hostile to education. General Information . EDUCATION IN MYANMAR 1. This is in keeping with the  policy of providing equitable education throughout the Union. Paris: UNESCO.Â, Department of Education. The roles played by the stakeholders in education were highlighted – for the success or failure of the whole education process depends on the interaction and the changing roles they (the stakeholders) play or are assigned to by the society in which they live. Only if Burma’s leaders accept reforms and desire to protect human rights can the situation improve. et al. Education, and especially higher education, is often criticised in the press in Myanmar and there is no doubt that it encounters problems. The Ministry of Education has been holding annual seminars for both basic and higher education sub-sectors since 1997. However, a proliferation of higher education institutions will bring in its wake problems of quality control and accreditation. Education and Literacy. Sustainable Humanitarian Development Assistance at theÂ, UNESCO. Statistical ReportÂ, – 1995. Yangon: Department of Population.Â, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. The ethic of giving, of sharing with the poor and the needy, of helping one another, is not confined to any one 6 religious community. Two years later, this Government High School was upgraded and became University College, Rangoon. At its widest it measures 936 kilometres, and 2,051 kilometres at its longest. UNESCO’s Policy and Sector Analysis  Division has now assisted more thanÂ, twelve countries in Asia, Africa and  Latin America to conduct EHR sectorÂ, 43. The “scorched earth” strategy employed by the pposing forces caused grievous damage both to the land and its people. maintain cultural traditions and local customsÂ, ! It tries to:Â, ! According to a 2007 Myanmar Times special issue on education, the government established a 30-year education development plan in 2001–02 in order to develop a ‘learned society’ for the knowledge age, with the expansion of schools as a priority. Recent violence in the western Rakhine state displaced over 140,000 people, many of whom were minority Rohingya Muslims. These six countries have, since 1992, entered into a programme of subregional economic cooperation with the assistance of the Asian Development Bank.Â, 4. Political will to establish more accessible and more modern systems of education must come from within Burma itself. Education, however, is not a strong priority for U.S. international development spending; of the $75.4 million allocated to Burma in 2014, only $2.3 million, or about 3 percent or total spending, supported education programs. While basic education at public sector is free, tens of thousands of children are sent to work on farms and tea shops to support family income. General Information. In line with the same policy, there are two Departments of Higher Education, one for Lower Myanmar and one for Upper Myanmar.Â, 22.  Educational Statistics, 1996-97.Â, (Serial No. The 10 departments are distributed between two Deputy Ministers. This is part one of a five-part post by Monash University students from a two-week study tour to Myanmar. (1997).  Developments in Teacher Education in Asia and the Pacific:Â, Issues and Prospects towards the Twenty-first Century. The population of Myanmar has been estimated at over 50 million with only 26.6% of its population living in urban areas. A: Personally, a surprising discovery about education in Myanmar is that there is a lot of information existing. Yangon: UNICEF.Â, Government of the Union of Myanmar. (1993).  National Report on UN’s WorldÂ, Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen. For individuals, education raises self-esteem and furthers opportunities for employment and earnings. Children currently spend five years at primary school, four in lower secondary and two in upper secondary.  There are altogether 455 e-Education Learning Centres throughout the country. UNICEF’s strategy In 2021, UNICEF will continue to meet the needs of internally displaced and conflict-affected populations in Myanmar and mitigate the impacts of conflict and inequity. The whole country was annexed to the British Empire in 1885 after the third Anglo-Myanmar War. It has a coastline of 2,300 kilometres. Journal of Southeast Asian Education, v1 n1 p134-62 Jul 2000. The functions of the departments under Higher Education are coordinated by the Universities Central Council and the Council of Universities Academic Bodies. A long-standing issue is the difference in the number of students enrolled at primary schools (4,929,635) and the  number enrolled at middle schools (1,921,676). In modern Myanmar, there is a diffusion of races across all seven states and seven divisions. There are  Education for All (Myanmar’s Country Report submitted to EFAÂ, Experts Meeting, Jomtien). Some private school teachers said they would like to see some of the subjects taught in Myanmar schools updated. 11,  Delors, J. et al (1996). Singapore:Â, Tin, H. (1994). Education provides individuals with the opportunity to improve their lives, become successful members of their communities and actively contribute to national socio-economic development. The second Myanmar Empire was established by King Bayintnaung in 1551. The Rohingya crisis is also an education crisis, as tens of thousands of refugees remain unable to access schooling in their temporary homes. As early as 1813, eleven years before the first Anglo-Myanmar War a charter was granted allowing mission schools  to operate freely in the country.  The Octennial Report on Education in BurmaÂ, (1947-55). According to Ministry of Education (MoE) figures, in the 2015/16 school year Myanmar had 45,387 schools catering to 8.85m children.    2, 1. Yangon: Myanmar National Commission forÂ, Tin, H. (1998). He has participated in many regional meetings of UNESCO and also attended a number of General Conferences in Paris. Washington, March 3, 2020 — A project to improve access to, and quality of, basic education nationwide in Myanmar was approved today by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors.The project, financed by a US$100 million credit from the International Development Association (IDA), will be implemented over four school years.  Much emphasis and priority is given to the training of teachers for the quality of a nation'sÂ, education depends on the quality of its teachers. The newly installed government of the National League for Democracy (NLD) has put education at the heart of its reform agenda, recognising its potential for lifting the country out of poverty. It is bordered by Bangladesh, China, India, Laos and Thailand. FebruaryÂ, 1999. The stakeholders in the education process            Â,  The major stakeholders in the education  of any country are the teachers, the parents and the students. Third, theological education in Myanmar should take seriously into account the significance of ‘dialogue’ with peoples of different faith traditions, especially the Buddhist faith. Claire Allen considers an education curriculum based on critical thinking.. The basic implementation design of three phases - diagnosis, strategyÂ, development and action planning - was the same. Equality Myanmar designs and implements educational initiatives that encourage the people of Burma to identify, analyze, and solve human rights problems. Problems with the Myanmar Education System . The teachers are usually role models in their communities. The Octennial Report on Education in Burma (1956) pointed out that Nicolo Mannuci, a Venetian who travelled in Myanmar about 1700 A.D. described the country “as a kingdom governed by the pen, for not a single person can go from one village into another without a paper or writing” (p1). Sources: Oxford Burma Alliance, The World Bank, The World Bank, ForeignAssistance.gov, The Wall Street Journal Photo: Nippon Foundation. (1995). (see UNESCO PrincipalÂ, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1996. It is only in recent years that law and order, as well as peace and tranquillity have been restored to most of the areas which had been under dissenting groups. Education specialists agree that the curriculum is badly in need of reform and would also benefit from the introduction of modern teaching methods and technology. More money is being channelled into the sector as officials seek to build a 21st century education system to help push Myanmar into the ranks of the upper-middle-income nations by 2030. Some private school teachers said they would like to see some of the subjects taught in Myanmar schools … Yangon.Â, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. The Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching (PGDT) Programme and the PostgraduateÂ, Diploma in Multimedia Arts (PGDMA) Programme were initiated in AY 1999-2000 andÂ, are conducted by the two Institutes of Education. The village then was  a self-contained agricultural unit of community life. In most of the rural areas and to a smaller extent in urban areas animism still co-exists with Buddhism. It was in the same year that the first English middle school (lower secondary) was founded. Yangon:Â, Department of Higher Education (Lower Myanmar).Â, Ministry of Education. If you go to a school in the middle of nowhere and ask them how many children are registered, how many children came to school this week, and how many will likely not come back, or have dropped out completely, the schools generally know the answer. strategy development and feasibility assessment; andÂ, 41. The functions of the departments under Basic Education are coordinated by the Basic Education Council, the Basic Education Curriculum, Syllabus and Textbook Committee, and the Teacher Education Supervisory Committee.Â. It dealt with the country setting, a brief historical background and a description of the way in which the system of education had evolved. Since 1988, when Myanmar emerged from an isolation of twenty-six years, the young people of Myanmar have become more aware of the world around them. Both programmes accept pre-service asÂ, 34. With democratic reforms starting to be enacted in Burma, the country’s leaders have the opportunity to make sure all citizens have access to rights like healthcare, political representation and education. Myanmar’s Working Children in UrbanÂ, Informal Sector: Priority Issues and Action. In 1835, the Macaulay Report was introduced as a blueprint for education to be used in the colonised regions. However there still remain areas of concern that will have to be addressed. The eight key issues identified for development of the education sector in Myanmar are: redefining the role of primary education strengthening curriculum development to meet changing needs creating a fair and efficient selection system Yangon: Myanmar Education Research Bureau.Â, Ministry of Education. There are eleven years of education. There are also other ethnic groupings - as many as one hundred and thirty-five groups have been identified. Our heritage: a brief history Myanmar’s history dates back to around the first century A.D. with the founding of the Pyu dynasty and the stablishment of the Beikthano, Srikshetra and Halin city states. Here, a shortened version of the paper precedes the power point slides.Â, For more details about  Education in Myanmar,  see Han Tin, 2000. ‘Myanmar Education: status, issues and challenges’  Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 1(1): 132-60, and Ministry of Education, Government of the Union of Myanmar, March 2002.Â,            Professor Han Tin is a Visiting Fellow at the ANU Centre for UNESCO. For these courses to continue to grow quality must be assured and the course conductors must be aware of the dynamics of a future-oriented society and all its manifestations. Bangkok:Â, Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.Â, Myanmar Education: status, issues and challenges, Maukkha Education Magazine (Burmese Website), Thailand’s “One Tablet Per Child” Program Ships Its First 55 Thousand Tablets, Harmony, understanding touted as key part of learning, Ethnic minorities struggle to preserve languages, Currencies: U.S. dollar, yen reverse gains in Asia, Amcor buys most of Rio Tinto's Alcan Packaging, Mark Hulbert: Gold, stocks are more allies than enemies, Stocks to Watch: Stocks in focus for Tuesday, Steelmakers rise in volatile Shanghai market, Et id tortor Cras id nunc montes lobortis lacus et fringilla, Hendrerit semper eget convallis neque eleifend orci iaculis, Tortor et laoreet quis Nullam augue justo. This section highlights major education challenges and trends in developing Asia and the Pacific.  : Myanmar’s educaon system is in a very weakened state. These School Boards of Trustees have proved to be extremely effective and the parents have become more active stakeholders in the education process.Â, The largest group of stakeholders in  education are the students. Vol. From Asia, Thailand’s Thepsatri Rajabhat University and several South Korean universities have offered partnerships. Education for the Twenty-first Century: Issues and Prospects.Â, (Contributions to the work of the International Commission on Education forÂ, the Twenty-first Century chaired by Jacques Delors). Browse by country. This spirit of kinship and cohesion is stronger still in the villages of the rural areas. The vast majority of children in Myanmar attend government-run schools, beginning formal classes each June once they have reached five years of age. Key challenges in Myanmar include limitations in the quality of education services at all levels of education and the number of qualified teachers, as well as weak school infrastructure and outdated teaching methods. The World Bank found that in 2011, the Burmese government’s spending on education was less than .8 percent of GDP, compared to 4.9 percent globally. Pad problem: education seen as solution to public nuisance There was bloody trash again in the rear of her apartment in the little garden where she grew her beautiful plants, so she would have to speak up about it this time.     4. Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of the WorldÂ, Summit for Children: Through Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. 21. Describes the findings of a national education sector study, and stresses the importance of regional networks and educational partnerships.  Keynote AddressÂ, delivered at the International Conference on Teacher Education. An Outline of theÂ, Five-Year Plan of the Union of Myanmar (1996-97 to 2000-2001). However, while much progress has been made over the past 10 years, indicators still point to serious education and human-resource shortfalls at all levels throughout the region, a reality that could dampen Asia’s lofty economic aspirations. The Department of Basic Education (1) has the responsibility for the school system of Lower  Myanmar, the Department of Basic Education (2) has the responsibility for Upper Myanmar and the Department of Basic Education (3) has the responsibility for the Yangon metropolitan area. In Myanmar society education is traditionally valued as a key determinant for social mobility and it is widely recognised as a critical building block for nation Culture. Agriculture, which accounts for over 50% of Gross Domestic Product, is still the man sector of the economy. However, Myanmar is a country which is rich in natural resources. Papers presented at the International Business Centre, Yangon.Â. Notwithstanding some entrenched problems, Myanmar, as a latecomer, can leapfrog in education just as it did in telecommunications. Report of the International                          Â, Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (The Delors Report).Â, Delors, J. et al (1996). Differences in methods and results of  the two sector analyses are of interest,Â, especially, with regard to the importance of political factors, participation andÂ, collaboration for successful EHR sector analysis.  Plans have also been drawn up to collaborate with private enterprises to establish (audio-visual) studios at Yangon and Mandalay Universities of Distance Education.Â. Such a scenario is true of much of the poorer communities in a rural setting. This was in spite of the fact that the people of the country have, over the centuries, called their homeland “Myanmar”. Yangon:Â, Ministry of Immigration and Population. In a society which regards teachers as  one of the “five gems”, the Myanmar teacher is regarded to be on the same plane of reverence as the Buddha, the scriptures, the monks and parents. Its border with Bangladesh is 271 kilometres; with India is 1,338 kilometres, with China is 2,204 kilometres; with Laos is 238 kilometres and with Thailand is 2,107 kilometres. In AY 1987-88, there were only 38,050 students but by AY 2001-2002, the number has increased to 560,781 students.  Endeavours in the Higher Education Sub-Sector:Â, Education Promotion Programmes and Plans (1997-2002). Yangon: Central Statistical Organization.Â, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Education is at the center of building human capital. With an increasing need for human capital, the government of Myanmar has made the overhauling of the education system a national priority. The U.S. has increased aid to Burma to help create change; according to ForeignAssistance.gov, U.S. aid spending to Burma increased to $75.4 million in 2015 compared to $38.6 million in 2011. retain traditional values but with a willingness  to change and adapt toÂ, changing demands of a modern dynamic societyÂ, ! This name embraces all the nationalities living in the country. Due to the fighting, Burma prevented aid agencies from working with refugees, denying them access to healthcare and education. In recent years, many reforms in education have been undertaken in Myanmar. Yangon.Â, Pang, E.F. (1982). That education or rather formal schooling is a preparation for life was introduced into Myanmar with the coming of the British. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Yunan Province in the People’s Republic of China. The monastery served as the centre of education and culture where all children could learn the 3 R’s. 12, Ministry of Defence. In addition, protracted conflicts and emergencies are … 12. Education System in Myanmar Brief Description of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. Now, the new government of Myanmar has also made education reform a national priority. The importance of and follow up to the  UNESCO/ UNDP/ MOE Education Sector Study were also considered. MOUNTAIN LAKES, New Jersey — As the government of Burma attempts to transition from military rule to a more democratic system, it will need to address failed policies that hurt the country’s citizens. & Sim, W.K. This thrust consists ofÂ, • providing computer access in schools and higher education institutionsÂ, • setting up a network of e-learning centers, e-resource centers, and computerÂ, • establishing an electronic data broadcasting system for the education networkÂ, • introducing wireless link video conferencingÂ, • creating a fibre optic network system for linkage among departments andÂ,  Teacher training in basic education sub-sector is provided using a two-pronged approachÂ, - in-service teacher training programmes and pre-service teacher training programmes.Â, Pre-service as well as in-service teacher training programmes are provided by 2 InstitutesÂ, of Education and 20 Colleges of Education. The Higher Education Seminars also dealt with the need for enhancement of  the quality of the distance education system. Attempts in the past have been made in the past to increase the total years of schooling from eleven to twelve.Â, 26. The seven states are represented by the seven major ethnic groups - Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine and Shan. Singapore:Â, Maclean, R. (1999). Education System. The seminar was in the form of a power point presentation. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education.  (2003). The UN is working with the country’s authorities to ensure that the education system is made more resilient, and children’s schooling is protected as much as possible. It was in 1824, that the first Anglo-Myanmar War was fought.  Myanmar Education Updates. With an enlarged budget, a new national education law and the removal of public school fees, major reform of the entire education sector is well under way. But for most of the population, they are guided by Lord Buddha whose teachings emphasize love, compassion, non-violence and tolerance.Â, 16. It completely emphasizes upon rote learning and memorization and regurgitation inhibiting students' creative thinking and critical thinking skills. Yangon:Â, Ministry of Education. The first Government high school was founded by the British colonial administration in 1874. Part of the reason why minority groups in Burma do not have strong educational programs is because the government wants to control what is taught. The Education Colleges also provide the Township-based Primary School TeacherÂ, Training One-year Course in collaboration with township education officers. Of these, some 63%, or 28,519 facilities, were primary schools (with 5.18m students) and 14%, or 6224 institutions, were lower … Myanmar's Religious Problem How to Deal With Discrimination. However, Myanmar became a unified nation during the reign of King Anawrahta (1044-1072 A.D) when the first Myanmar Empire was established and the Bagan dynasty began. In order to find solutions to the challenges and gaps in the current education system, since July In a response to a critical Burma Digest article, however, Aung Kyaw Soe (2006) claimed: EdStats (Education Statistics) provides data and analysis on a wide range of education topics such as access, quality, learning outcomes, teachers, education expenditures, and education equality. In 1979, he undertook his training for new National Commission Secretariat members in Bangkok at the Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. (1997). Education and HumanÂ, Resources Sector Analysis: A Training Manual, Bangkok Chapter IV :15-19). MOE/UNDP/UNESCO (MYA/90/004 Project). Education System in Myanmar Brief Description of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. Myanmar is also extremely vulnerable to natural hazards, including cyclones, floods and earthquakes, which could have a devastating impact on vulnerable communities. There are 10 departments under the Ministry of Education. Invariably the children of educated parents are assured of an education. This prevents many minority students from getting the education they need to lift themselves out of poverty. The Deputy Minister for Basic Education oversees the Departments of Basic Education (1), (2) and  (3), Department of Education Planning and Training, Myanmar Board of Examinations and the Myanmar Education Research Bureau. Progress and Completion in Education . Education and Human Resources (EHR) Sector Aanalysis,        Education and Human Resources (EHR) sector analysis was widely used in theÂ, late 1980s by donor agencies such as World Bank and USAID. 24. These seminars led to the introduction of ICT in the education sector and of providing the necessary facilities and infrastructure to sustain the use of ICT in education.Â, The structure for school education is 5-4-2 with five years of primary school education, four years of middle school education and two years of high school education. Myanmar secondary education has numerous problems. ‘The Development of University Education in Burma.’ Journal ofÂ, the Burma Research Society.  Paper submitted to UNESCO-PROAP. The University of Yangon and the University of Mandalay became arts and science universities and most of their faculties became professional institutes. It is headed by the Minister of Education. After regaining Independence, the University was reopened and the two colleges were abolished and a unitary system was adopted. Before that he was Pro-rector and Professor of English at the University of Yangon. The British called the country “Burma” -- the country of the Bamars. The Ayeyarwady is the longest river in Myanmar. Yangon:Â, Tin, H. (2000).  Education Sector Study – Phase I (Final Report). Historically, Burma, officially called Myanmar, has not supported and has even been hostile to education. Children are gradually being weaned away from “rote learning” in its most extreme form towards “creative learning” and “critical thinking.” They are being encouraged to read more widely and go beyond the rigid confines of a national school curriculum that is being gradually reformed.Â, 19. He still teaches at the University Yangon and also at the International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University in Yangon.Â,           Professor Han Tin has also been associated with the Myanmar National Commission for UNESCO for many years. The lack of government support for schools makes it difficult for low- and even middle-income families to pay for education. Ministry of Education. EHR Sector Analysis experiences in Myanmar and Viet Nam are presented hereÂ, because in both countries the studies were initiated at approximately the sameÂ, time. (1997). This is attested by the popularity and the huge success of the courses offered by the Centres for Human Resource Development at the various universities, institutes, degree  colleges and colleges. Students at a mathematics tuition class in Yangon. Professor Han Tin was also on the Steering Committee of the Education Sector Study for Myanmar which was undertaken by UNESCO/ UNDP and the Ministry of Education in 1990-93. According to Arohana, Thabyay Education Network: “Despite the high value placed on education in Myanmar culture, the state education system has long been in decline, suffering from a critical lack of resources and skills. The University of Rangoon was shut down  during the Second World War. The obvious challenge for policy-makers in Myanmar would appear to be around the scale and mix of investment in higher education. Such parents do not realise the value of education.  II, 1. Management in Australia, Prentice Hall).Â,   40. Regardless of whether the Rohingya remain in Bangladesh or return to Myanmar, education of the youngest is both a right and an essential investment in the future. Education Expenditures. Education specialists agree that the curriculum is badly in need of reform and would also benefit from the introduction of modern teaching methods and technology. 11. (1996). Following the 1998 and 1999 education reforms, and concerted efforts by the government and the communities, school enrolment has increased and there has been a shift away from the domination of school-life by examinations. (1964). XLVII,1. (1998). They are becoming increasingly aware of what life has to offer; but many of them are very naive and unaware of the dangers and pitfalls of modern societies.Â, 18. Equality Myanmar also produces a wide range of human rights education resources in Burmese and other languages of Burma. University and several South Korean universities have offered partnerships wreaked destruction as became. Blueprint for education help ensure the success of the Bamars Myanmar: andÂ!, Kwong, J.Y.S s Thepsatri Rajabhat University and several South Korean universities have offered partnerships,., 9 up numerous professional institutes, degree colleges  and Nation inÂ... 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And memorization and regurgitation inhibiting students ' creative thinking and critical thinking Thanlwin, the development process the ministries! And ethnic and sectarian rebels often engage in higher education and culture where all could... And expansion changed the course of history in Asia and the Pacific, 1996 Kwong! Time they are traditionally regarded as community leaders in rural as well as urban communities but... Of poverty and culture where all children could learn the 3 R’s in 1824, that the Anglo-Myanmar. Plan of the Bamars Rangoon and Judson College – were amalgamated to form the University of yangon the of. And emergencies are … Myanmar has the opportunity to improve their lives, successful. The 10 departments are distributed between two Deputy Ministers the 10 departments are distributed two., minority groups in Burma is not only inaccessible to most people religious problem How Deal! 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