Height 5 3/4 in. He lacked the broad strategic sense and the ruthless drive to command all the Russian armies. They were successful in the former, infiltrating the group with spies. There appears to have been some sentiment to have him head the White Army forces active in southern Russia at the time, but the leaders in charge, especially General Anton Denikin, were afraid that a strong monarchist figurehead would alienate the more left leaning constituents of the movement. Grand Duke Nicholas was portrayed in the 1971 film Nicholas and Alexandra by Harry Andrews, and in the 1974 television drama Fall of Eagles by John Phillips . Also in 1916, the Russian army captured the fortress town of Erzerum, the port of Trebizond (now Trabzon) and the town of Erzincan. The other three medallions are skilfully engraved with grapevines. Buyers and sellers of fine antique jewelry and Imperial Russian antiques since 1998. Grand Duke Nicholas played a crucial role during the Revolution of 1905. This act was decisive in forcing Nicholas II to agree to the reforms. [11][12] The Russian authorities launched pogroms against German populations in Russian cities, massacred Jews in their towns and villages and deported 500,000 Jews and 250,000 Germans into the Russian interior. [6], The Grand Duke had no part in the planning and preparations for World War I, that being the responsibility of General Vladimir Sukhomlinov and the general staff. [18] The monarchists made plans to send agents into Russia. Alexandra Fedorovna was a daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenbur… He was happiest in the country, hunting or caring for his estates. The only man with the prestige to keep the allegiance of the army in such a coup was the Grand Duke. He was briefly recognized as Tsar, Emperor of Russia in 1922 in areas controlled by the White Armies movement in the Russian Far East. 14 April] 1859 – 28 January 1919) was the eldest son of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia and a first cousin of Alexander III.. Ancestry in Peterhof. She was a younger sister of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. In the south they conquered much of Galicia. In the Julian calendar, his birthday is stated as November 6, 1856. Biography. [15][16] Nothing in the Grand Duke's record suggests that he would have even considered such a war crime. The son of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1831–1891), and a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian Imperial Army units on the main front in the first year of the war, during the reign of his first cousin once removed, Nicholas II. He was originally buried in the church of St. Michael the Archangel Church in Cannes, France. Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich (1827–1892) (2) (8) Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich (b. [3] After the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive in 1915, Tsar Nicholas replaced the Grand Duke as commander-in-chief of the army. Once, a deputation of peasants came to bring presents to Alexei. In an emotional scene at the palace, Nicholas refused, drew his pistol and threatened to shoot himself on the spot if the Tsar did not endorse Witte's plan. A grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian Imperial Army units on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander … Conversely a top priority of the Soviet secret police was to penetrate this monarchist organization and to kidnap Nicholas. Grand Duke Nicholas was the first cousin once removed of Tsar Nicholas II. His paternal grandparents were Duke Karl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg (1735–1788) and Carolina of Orange-Nassau. Nicholas Nikolaevich (1856-1929) was a grand duke of the Russian nobility and until 1915, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army in World War I.. Nicholas was born in St Petersburg, the eldest son of Grand Duke Nicholas, the third son of Tsar Nicholas I. The bodies of Nicholas Nikolaevich and his wife were re-buried in Moscow at the World War I memorial military cemetery in May 2015. His experience was more as a trainer of soldiers than a leader in battle. She had previously been married to George Maximilianovich, 6th Duke of Leuchtenberg, by whom she had two children, until their divorce in 1906. Any item from this site may be viewed by appointment at our downtown Chicago location on Monday/Wednesday/, Copyright @ 1998-2020 RomanovRussia.com All Rights Reserved, Vintage & Antique Engagement Rings (View All). His appointment reflected the fact that he was perhaps the man the last Emperor of Russia trusted the most. He and his wife escaped just ahead of the Red Army in April 1919, aboard the British Royal Navy battleship HMS Marlborough. They had no children. Hunting was his major recreation, and he traveled in his private train across Russia with his horses and dogs, hunting while on his rounds of inspection. He was mostly known as "Sandro". Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov (18 May [O.S. We also buy and sell objects related to Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia. Nicholas, named after his paternal grandfather the emperor, was born as the eldest son to Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia (1831–1891) and Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg (1838–1900). Michael Nikolaevich was born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire in 1832, the son of Czar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia.Michael served as Governor-General of the Caucasus from 1862 to 1882, being seated in Tbilisi. Nicholas was already living abroad and consequently was not present. 420–421, Chicago, 1958, Robinson, Paul. But, in March 1917, the Tsar was overthrown and the Russian army began slowly to fall apart. [2], The Grand Duke received several Russian and foreign decorations:[19]. From 1905 to the outbreak of World War I, he was commander-in-chief of the St. Petersburg Military District. [12] The Russian military leadership regarded Muslims, Germans and Poles as traitors and spies, while Jews were considered political unreliables. On 29 April 1907, Nicholas married Princess Anastasia of Montenegro (1869–1935), the daughter of King Nicholas I, and sister of Princess Milica, who had married Nicholas's brother, Grand Duke Peter. Alexei was born on 12 August 1904 (30 July, O.S.) He was given responsibility for the largest army ever put into the field up to that date. According to his French tutor, Pierre Gilliard, Alexei was a simple, affectionate child, but his environment was spoiling him by the "servile flattery" of the servants and "silly adulations" of the people around him. Alexei Nikolaevich was born on 12 August 1904 in Peterhof Palace, St. Petersburg Governorate as the heir apparent to the throne. By 1895, he was inspector-general of the cavalry, a post he held for 10 years. After his death in 1891, the service was inherited by his son Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich the Younger (1856-1929). Originally, the service was made for Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich the Older in the mid 19th century. Nicholas was a very religious man, praying in the morning and at night as well as before and after meals. As the Russian dogs perished in the Revolution of 1917–18, the borzoi of today are descended from gifts he made to European friends before World War I. From 1914 to 1915, and then again briefly in 1917, he was commander of the largest army in the world in the greatest war the world had ever seen. His maternal grandfather was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Württemberg. But after seeing Nursi's submission and faith about the sake of science, he changed his mind. [4] His father was the sixth child and third son born to Nicholas I of Russia and his Empress consort Alexandra Fedorovna of Prussia (1798–1860). [4] He distinguished himself on two occasions in this war. [4] He was 57 years old and had never commanded armies in the field before, although he had spent almost all of his life on active service. They did not succeed however, in kidnapping Nicholas. 1895, he changed his mind Luise of Saxe-Hildburghausen September ] 1876 – 12 October 1938 ) a! 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